Thousands of people took to the streets chanting “death to the dictator” and slogans against Iranian President Hassan Rouhani.
Anti-government protests were held across the country, including Mashhad, the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest places in Shia Islam.
Images published online appeared to show security forces firing tear gas in a bid to stop the protests.
Further footage showed police using water cannon to drive people back as missiles were hurled towards them.
Some demonstrators were shown with blood pouring from their faces as clashes with police took place.
Similar scenes took place in Neyshabur, Shahroud, and Yazd with some people yelling “leave Syria, think about us” – a reference to Tehran’s funding of its neighbour.
Mashhad governor Mohammad Rahim Norouzian told local media “the demonstration was illegal but the police dealt with people with tolerance”.
He added a number of protesters were arrested for “trying to damage public property”
Mr Rouhani’s signature achievement was a deal in 2015 with world powers to curb Iran’s nuclear programme in return for lifting most international sanctions.
But that has yet to bring the economic benefits the government had promised.
In the meantime, many Iranians believe their economic situation has not improved due to corruption and mismanagement.
Unemployment stood at 12.4 percent in the past year, up 1.4 percent from the previous year. About 3.2 million Iranians are jobless, out of a total population of 80 million.
While the country struggles, Iran’s Supreme Leader has attempted to blame Donald Trump for its woes.
Mocking the American leader, he said: “Reagan was more powerful and smarter than Trump.
“He was a better actor in making threats.”
He went on: “But Reagan is gone and, according to our beliefs, he now faces God’s retribution while Iran has made great advances in all areas since Reagan’s time.”
“This trend will continue under the current American president and any hopes on their part that the Islamic Republic would back off or weaken is futile.”
Tensions have risen between the two nations since Mr Trump took office.